Iran is a county in southwest Asian, country of mountains and deserts. Eastern Iran is dominated by
a high plateau, with large salt flats and vast sand deserts. The plateau is surrounded by even higher
mountains, including the Zagros to the west and the Alborz to the north.
Its neighbors are Turkmenistan, Azerbaijan and Armenia on the north, Afghanistan and Pakistan on the east, and Turkey and Iraq on the west.
Tehran is the capital, the country's largest city and the political, cultural,commercial and industrial center of the nation.
Iran holds an important position in international energysecurity and world economy as a result of its large reserves of petroleum and natural gas.
Iran is home to one of the world's oldest continuous major civilizations. The first Iranian dynasty formed during the Elamite kingdom in 2800 BC. The Iranian Medes unified Iran into an empire in 625 BC. They were succeeded by the Iranian Achaemenid Empire, the Hellenic Seleucid Empire and two subsequent Iranian empires, the Parthians and the Sassanids, before the Muslim conquest in 651 AD. Iranian post-Islamic dynasties and empires expanded the Persian language and culture throughout the Iranian plateau. Early Iranian dynasties which re-asserted Iranian independence included the Tahirids, Saffarids, Samanids and Buyids.
Persian (Farsi) is the most widely spoken language. Arabic is spoken in Khuzestan in the southwest, and Turkish in the northwest around Tabriz. English, French and (to a lesser extent) German are spoken by many businessmen and officials.
According to the Islamic and social beliefs in Iran, it is necessary for women to be modestly covered & wearing a head scarf. Wearing shorts is inappropriate.
The currency in Iran, or the money used, is called the rial . The rial was first
introduced as the currency in Iran in 1798 as a coin. When talking money in Iran you may hear the
term "toman”. The toman is an old term but is no longer an official currency. However it is still used
on a daily basis in Iran and it refers to the amount of rials.
Iran is a diverse country consisting of people of many religions and ethnic backgrounds cemented by the Persian culture.
The majority of the population speaks the Persian language, which is also the official language of the country, as well as other Iranian languages or dialects. Turkic languages and dialects, most importantly Azeri language, are spoken in different areas in Iran. Additionally, Arabic is spoken in the southwestern parts of the country.
Religion in Iran is dominated by the Twelver Shi'a branch of Islam, which is the official state religion. About 4% to 8% of Iranians belong to the Sunni branch of
Islam, mainly Kurds and Balochi are Sunni. The remaining 2% are non-Muslim religious minorities, including Zoroastrians, Jews, and Christians.